17 Logical Fallacies
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"You're wrong because your solution won't solve all the world's problems!" Just because something doesn't lead to perfection, doesn't mean it's the wrong thing to do.
an ad hominem is a general category of fallacies in which a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim or argument.
avoiding the question
This is a popular one on time-wasting social network sites. Gaining in popularity is the "I already answered you multiple times" version. Well humor me and answer again.
because i said so
Like the ridiculous cop said, "Rules are rules. They don't have to be logical- that's why they're laws."
claiming that someone's position is illegitimate because he's white is racist. doing so because he's privileged is ad lazarium. why don't you focus on the content of his character instead of the color of his skin you big illogical cry-baby?
begging the question
begging the question is a fallacy in which the premises include the claim that the conclusion is true or (directly or indirectly) assume that the conclusion is true.
reducing the argument to two options when others are possible.
a red herring is a fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. the basic idea is to 'win' an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.
A loaded question is a question which contains a controversial or unjustified assumption ( e.g., a presumption of guilt).
appeal to authority
The man with big pants on says so, so it must be right!
argument from ignorance
Something is so confusing, so there must be X.
the slippery slope is a fallacy in which a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question. in most cases, there are a series of steps or gradations between one event and the one in question and no reason is given as to why the intervening steps or gradations will simply be bypassed.
the straw man fallacy is committed when a person simply ignores a person's actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position.
too simple fallacy
"Your position is too simple. It's wrong." or "No, you're wrong. This problem is too complex for your solution." Oh yeah? How so?
The is–ought problem in meta-ethics as articulated by Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76) is that many writers make claims about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is. However, Hume found that there seems to be a significant difference between descriptive statements (about what is) and prescriptive or normative statements (about what ought to be), and it is not obvious how one can get from making descriptive statements to prescriptive.
moving the goal-posts
Moving the goalposts (or shifting the goalposts) is a metaphor meaning to change the criterion (goal) of a process or competition while still in progress, in such a way that the new goal offers one side an intentional advantage or disadvantage.
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Simply because someone with a white lab coat has come to the conclusion X, doesn't mean they were free from errors in methodology or free from fraud. In many fields, scientists have tried to reproduce the results of studies and can do so under 40% of the time.
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